Senin, 13 Mei 2013 | 19.11 | 5 Comments

Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang

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Beranikah Anda buang air di toilet yang memiliki pintu tembus pandang? 
Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
Sebuah kafe bernama Cafe Diglas di Vienna, Austria cukup membuat pengunjung terkejut dengan inovasi kreatif mereka terhadap desain kamar mandi. 
Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
 Seperti dilansir Oddity Central, Senin (13/5), pintu kamar mandi dibuat menggunakan bahan tembus pandang sehingga siapa pun yang ada di dalam, dapat terlihat oleh orang-orang yang lewat.
Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
Namun pembuatan pintu ini cukup cerdas dan tidak seburuk yang Anda kira.
Ternyata pintu dalam keadaan tembus pandang hanya jika dalam keadaan tidak terkunci. Ketika pintu dikunci, maka pintu seketika berubah menjadi tidak tembus pandang lagi dan muncul lambang merah “No Entry”.
Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
"Sebenarnya ini hal yang sangat sederhana. Kaca terbuat dari molekul halide perak yang membiarkan cahaya tembus. Ketika tegangan dihilangkan, molekul menyerap lebih banyak cahaya sehingga membuat kaca tidak tembus pandang" ujar seorang netizen.

Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
Makanya, jangan lupa mengunci pintu saat buang air, terutama jika pintu tembus pandang seperti ini.

Video : Pintu Toilet Tembus Pandang
Keunikan pintu toilet ini sukses membuat Diglas menjadi tempat populer di seluruh dunia. Terutama ketika seorang pengunjung mengunggah foto toilet transparan ini ke dalam Youtube.
 
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Senin, 09 Juli 2012 | 00.25 | 20 Comments

What Is The Greenhouse Effect?


A graphic showing greenhouse gases reradiating heat back to the Earth's surface. / Credits: Shutterstock

Greenhouse gases trap some of the sun's energy within our atmosphere and increase the temperature of Earth's surface. This is called the greenhouse effect. (Source: Shutterstock)

Our atmosphere is but a thin layer of gas around a huge bulky planet. This gaseous outer ring and its greenhouse effect make life on Earth possible–and could destroy life as we know it.

The sun is the Earth’s primary energy source, a burning star so hot that we can feel its heat from over 150 million kilometers away.

About one third of this solar energy is reflected back into the universe by shimmering glaciers, water and other bright surfaces. Two thirds, however, is absorbed by the Earth, thus warming land, oceans, and the atmosphere.

Much of this heat radiates back out into space, but some of it is stored in the atmosphere. This process is called the greenhouse effect. Without it, the Earth’s average temperature would be a chilly -18 degrees Celsius, despite the sun’s constant energy supply.

In a world like this, life on Earth would probably have never emerged from the sea. Thanks to the greenhouse effect, however, we enjoy a comfortable average temperature of 14 degrees Celsius.

So, how does it work?

Radiator in space
Only about half of all solar energy that reaches the Earth is infrared radiation, which causes warming. The other half only translates into heat once it hits Earth and is reflected back into space as infrared radiation.

This transformation of solar radiation into infrared radiation is crucial, because infrared radiation can be absorbed by the atmosphere. Like a radiator in the middle of a room, our atmosphere radiates this heat in all directions.

How is this radiation absorbed?

Sunrays enter a greenhouse, heat up the ground, which, in turn, heats up the air inside the greenhouse. The glass roof and walls trap that warm air and temperatures increase.

Earth has no glass walls, but it does have the atmosphere, and within the atmosphere it has greenhouse gases.

Ninety-eight percent of the Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. But they do not absorb much infrared radiation, and don't contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse gases like water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons do absorb heat, and thus increase atmospheric temperatures.
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Studies indicate that until some 2.7 billion years ago, there was so much carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane in our atmosphere that average temperatures on Earth were as high as 70 degrees Celsius.

But bacteria and plants slowly turned CO2 into oxygen and the concentration of CO2 in our current atmosphere dropped to just about 0.038 percent or 383 parts per million (ppm).

Minuscule changes, global impact
Slight changes in the amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are already changing the way our planetary heating system works.

Measurements of carbon dioxide amounts from Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii show that CO2 has increased from about 313 ppm in 1960 to about 375 ppm in 2005.

That means for every million particles in our atmosphere, there are now 62 CO2 particles more than in 1960. Even if this does not seem like much, scientists say this increase—most probably caused by human activities—is mainly responsible for rising global temperatures throughout the last decades.

Even if the term “greenhouse effect” is somewhat of a misnomer, it still might be a useful handle from which the public can grasp an otherwise intricate natural process.

Most people can relate to how hot and stuffy a greenhouse can get. Now that the Earth has started to heat up, we realize that our own global greenhouse has no window that we can open to catch some fresh air.

Source : http://knowledge.allianz.com
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Rabu, 19 Oktober 2011 | 00.18 | 2 Comments

CO2: Endless Warming


 / Credits: Reuters

Protestors dressed in CO2 molecule costumes, demonstrate in Essen, Germany, as part of the initiative 'ByeBye CO2' against carbon dioxide pollution (Source: Reuters)


Carbon dioxide is the number one reason for man-made climate change. But what is carbon dioxide, actually? Where does it come from? And why are governments and businesses now scrambling to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions?

Contribution to Human-Induced Climate Change: 70 percent
Global Warming Potency (100 years): 1 (benchmark to other gases)


Carbon dioxide is the second most important greenhouse gas behind water vapor, but the most important contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Methane and ozone are more potent, but have less effect on climate change due to their smaller atmospheric concentrations.

The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has been in flux throughout the Earth’s history, but the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that in pre-industrial times CO2 made up around 280 ppmv (parts per million volume) of the Earth’s atmosphere.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, however, the average amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 40 percent from an estimated 280 to more than 380 ppmv.

Sources of CO2
Carbon dioxide has always been with us. Scientists say Earth’s earliest atmosphere was made up mostly of steam, carbon dioxide, and ammonia from volcanic eruptions.

Today, carbon dioxide is naturally produced by the combustion of organic matter like coal, oil, and wood, and the fermentation or respiration processes of living organisms.

People are another source. The air we exhale is made up of about 4.5 percent CO2. Bacteria in the soil release CO2 when they digest leaves and carcasses. Even plants that usually absorb CO2 'exhale' it at night.


CO2 is one of the most important substances on Earth. Besides providing warmth to the world, it is the world’s most important fertilizer.

Plants, phytoplankton, and algae need the gas for their photosynthesis to produce sugar and to grow. While doing so they absorb and bind carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. That is why forests are one of the world’s most important absorbers of CO2, otherwise known as 'carbon sinks'.

There are a number of artificial uses of carbon dioxide, in fire extinguishers, as dry ice and, as the food additive E290, CO2 adds the fizz to soft drinks and sparkling water.

Human-induced increase
The increase in CO2’s share of the atmosphere is mostly due to anthropogenic (man-induced) factors, such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial production.

Most anthropogenic CO2 is produced by energy production and transport. Cement production is just one among many chemical processes that release the gas. Rotting organic materials release CO2, and so landfills are big CO2 contributors too.

In total, humans emit around 32 gigatons of carbon dioxide each year. Half of this stays in the atmosphere; the rest is absorbed by oceans and vegetation.

But with sharp increases in man-made CO2 emissions, the natural CO2 cycle has been thrown out of balance: vegetation can no longer transform the same proportion of CO2 into oxygen, and oceans are steadily reaching saturation level.

Theoretically, rising CO2 levels should be compensated for by plants and algae. Up to a certain concentration, more CO2 means more photosynthesis and more growth.

Unfortunately, under hot and dry conditions many plants close their pores to prevent the loss of water and switch to a process called photorespiration during which they consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. Only areas with enough precipitation and fertile soils will see increased growth as a result of rising CO2 levels.

The result is an enhanced greenhouse effect and, subsequently, climate change. While CO2 is only responsible for 20 percent of the natural greenhouse effect, it accounts for about 60 percent of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect that is causing the current global warming.

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Minggu, 12 Juni 2011 | 23.10 | 11 Comments

TDS in drinking water

TDS in drinking water - How many times do you drink water? Do you follow the recommendation for drinking at least 8 glasses of fresh water daily? Do not you have any questions what inside of water? Why drinking water can make you keep healthy? Well, it is important for you to know what you take daily.

The water contains of minerals. The minerals are commonly called TDS. If you want to get the best advantages from drinking water, you need not know about the standard level of TDS in drinking water.

TDS or Total Dissolved Solids influences the water quality. If the level is low, it will be not good for the healthy. TDS itself includes minerals, salts, metals, cations and anions. The good water is the water with TDS level not more than 500 ppm. If the TDS is more than 500 ppm, it will be harmful to be consumed. It is important to test the water whether it has high TDS or not. The pure water is colorless, tasteless and odorless.


If you find out that the drinking water supply you have tastes salty or bitter and also smells not good, you can’t consume it. It is like an alert that the water has high TDS. To test the TDS in drinking water, you can use the TDS meter device. It is not difficult to find this TDS tester device. You can simply make the shopping online through the internet.

There are many advantages you can get by drinking water. If you want to have the smooth and healthy skin, the water can works as natural moisturizer inside out. Water also can be used to press the appetite. It is good to lose the weight. Are you sure that the drinking water you take daily is kept its quality? That is why you need to know about the level of TDS in drinking water before you consume it.



Source : http://mywaterpurifier.blogspot.com/



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Rabu, 11 Mei 2011 | 21.46 | 1 Comments

Conversion of Carbon Dioxide Using Hydrocarbon Compounds Being Nanokatalis




It is inevitable that the use of fossil fuels is the higher this decade has brought some pretty bad effects of the global environment, such as global warming.

The use of fossil fuels such as oil and other processed products, natural gas, and coal is largely composed of hydrocarbons (a group of chemical compounds consisting of the elements carbon and hydrogen) to produce carbon dioxide pollution is increasingly out of control. Carbon dioxide gas is a major contributor to greenhouse gases that cause global warming on this earth. In addition to adverse impacts due to carbon dioxide pollution, fossil fuel energy sources that can not be updated and will soon be exhausted in the near future.

To answer that challenge, S. Tajammul Hussain and M. Hasib-ur-Rahman, two researchers from the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan has managed to find a formula nanokatalis capable of converting carbon dioxide and water vapor into hydrocarbon compounds, namely ethanol and propuna. As the results of their study, published in Journal of Nano Systems & Technology, the two researchers have succeeded in converting a gas mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor to methanol and propuna using nanokatalis from alloy metal ruthenium (Ru), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) which dialiasikan into the catalyst supporting titanium (IV) oxide. Understanding nanokatalis itself is a chemical substance capable of facilitating the reaction without reacting to participate billionth of meter size, a size very small.

Recent discovery is quite phenomenal considering scientists worldwide seeking an alternative method to synthesize long-chain hydrocarbons from the source of short-or single-chain hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide. Synthesis of this conversion is not economical because it can be said to achieve the highest conversion percentage at 450 ° C with the results of 36% ethanol and 41% propuna. The mechanism of this conversion was quite complicated because of all metal species in nanokatalis has its own role in this conversion reaction.

The conversion result obtained is not a long-chain hydrocarbons such as those found in gasoline, but this research represents a good first step to finding new methods to change the pollution of carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon energy sources. Although these results somewhat less economical to be projected on a large scale, but it is expected that subsequent studies can be applied globally to answer the following two major challenges: reducing the amount of pollutant carbon dioxide for global warming impact is reduced and the main energy source to synthesize human again today , namely hydrocarbons.


Source : http://www.chem-is-try.org
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